Working in Small Groups The participants were then divided into 6 smaller groups, aiming to distribute participants with different backgrounds evenly within the groups. Activity 1 The purpose of the first activity was to prompt participants to build positive, anticipatory images of themselves. Figure 1. Activity 2 In the second activity, all participants were asked to think about and report challenges and problems they perceived to be interfering with their overall well-being, as well as the reason why they were difficult to manage.
Activity 3 For activity 3, the overall goal was to develop and conceptualize ideas for tools that could be used to support its users in identifying and using their strengths to address the selected challenges. Activity 4 Finally, each group presented their final ideas in a plenary session. Data and Analysis The workshop yielded multiple types of data, which are presented Table 2. Table 2 Overview of data types gathered during the workshop.
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Type of data Description Use Audio Recordings hours of plenary and group sessions Primary data Observation Logs Reflection notes of facilitators and observers Contextualizing Photos Photos of activities, ideas, scribblings, etc Contextualizing Written products Sticky-notes, posters, note-papers, etc Contextualizing. Results Strengths The participants reported a wide range of strength items during the first two activities of the workshop.
Table 3 Categories of strengths and examples of strengths items reported by participants in the study. Challenges In total, the participants reported over challenges, which are summarized in the categories and examples shown in Table 4. Table 4 Categories and examples of challenges reported by participants in the study.
Table 5 Challenges chosen by groups and strengths participants reported that can be used to address those challenges. Table 6 Ideas developed during the group work and their short description.
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People in the cheering squad can provide their personal support to the user by sending positive and encouraging messages through the app. User-controlled personalized hospital Difficult to be young adult in a hospital An app for a person transitioning from a pediatric ward to a unit for adults in a hospital.
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Some features include: always available and open communication channel with all parties, option for defining and sharing with everybody personal requirements and preferences, and link to a patient journal and information bank. Empathy Simulator Communication among relatives and the health care system Virtual Reality 4D glasses that simulate experiences from different parties present in a consultation setting eg, patient, caregiver, or a family member.
The glasses simulate what the person hears and sees and also what is felt and sensed. Prioritizing app Prioritizing important things An app to help a person to make choices based on previous knowledge and experiences. The app supports a user during the process of making a choice—making a pro and con list for each option, help and tips on the strengths and resources one can use when making specific choice based on previous experiences , and registering your satisfaction and experience with the selected choices afterwards.
Functionality Requirements During the group work, various functionality requirements were raised and discussed among participants. Table 7 Functionality requirements participants reported for strengths-based self-management tools. Design Requirements In addition to functionality requirements, participants outlined various design requirements. Discussion Design Process: Combining Appreciative Inquiry, Participatory Design, and Service Design In this study, we applied a new approach for involving stakeholders in the design process that builds on the core principles of participatory design and service design that emphasize enabling meaningful participation and collaboration with different stakeholders.
Design of Self-Management Interventions Concept of Personal Strengths Assisted by the exercises and examples, the participants reported a large repertoire of strengths during the workshop, which ranged from personal qualities and characteristics aligned with the character strengths within the field of positive psychology to self-management and coping strategies activities that promote positive emotions and healthy behavior and supportive people and networks in their environment.
Designing for Quality of User Experience and for Promoting Human Potential and Wellbeing The design of technology to promote a positive user experience and engagement is one of the main principles of positive technology hedonic level [ 26 , 27 ]. Limitations Although the number of participants was similar to the sample sizes reported in other related studies, the results were obtained as part of one workshop in one specific context. Conclusions In this study, we combined methods from participatory design, service design, and appreciative inquiry to jointly, with stakeholders, explore the requirements and codesign ideas regarding the use of technology as a facilitator for mobilizing the personal strengths required for overcoming the everyday challenges of people with chronical illness.
Acknowledgments The work presented in this paper was supported by grant numbers from the Research Council of Norway.
Footnotes Conflicts of Interest: None declared. References 1. Living with chronic illness in adults: a concept analysis. J Clin Nurs. Challenges of self-management when living with multiple chronic conditions: systematic review of the qualitative literature. Can Fam Physician. Lorig KR, Holman H. Self-management education: history, definition, outcomes, and mechanisms. Ann Behav Med. Does the use of consumer health information technology improve outcomes in the patient self-management of diabetes?
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Handbook of Eudaimonic Well-Being. International Handbooks of Quality-of-Life. Cham: Springer; Pursuing happiness in everyday life: the characteristics and behaviors of online happiness seekers. Positive psychology interventions in people aged years: long-term effects of placebo-controlled online interventions on well-being and depression. Aging Ment Health.
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Saleebey D. The strengths perspective in social work practice: extensions and cautions. Soc Work. Passarelli AM.
Vision-based coaching: optimizing resources for leader development. Front Psychol.